RTOS Facilities C++ API

Note

Additional example code for this module can be found in its Tutorial.

pros

millis

Analogous to millis.

std::uint32_t pros::millis ( )
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void opcontrol() {
  std::uint32_t now = pros::millis();
  while (true) {
    // Do opcontrol things
    pros::Task::delay_until(&now, 2);
  }
}

Returns: Returns the number of milliseconds since PROS initialized.


pros::Task

Constructor(s)

Analogous to task_create.

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pros::Task::Task ( pros::task_fn_t function,
                   void* parameters = NULL,
                   std::uint32_t prio = TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                   std::uint16_t stack_depth = TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT,
                   const char* name = "")
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  pros::Task my_task (my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "My Task");
}

Create a new task and add it to the list of tasks that are ready to run.

Parameters  
function Pointer to the task entry function
parameters Pointer to memory that will be used as a parameter for the task being created. This memory should not typically come from stack, but rather from dynamically (i.e., malloc’d) or statically allocated memory.
prio The priority at which the task should run. TASK_PRIO_DEFAULT plus/minus 1 or 2 is typically used.
stack_depth The number of words (i.e. 4 * stack_depth) available on the task’s stack. TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT is typically sufficient.
name A descriptive name for the task. This is mainly used to facilitate debugging. The name may be up to 32 characters long.

pros::Task::Task ( pros::task_t task )
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  pros::task_t my_task = task_create(my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                               TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "My Task");
  pros::Task my_cpp_task (my_task);
}

Creates a Task object from a task already created with the C API.

Parameters  
task The task for which to create an object

pros::Task::Task ( task_fn_t function, void* parameters = NULL, const char* name = "" )
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  pros::Task my_cpp_task (my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", "My Task");
}

Create a new task and add it to the list of tasks that are ready to run.

Parameters  
function Pointer to the task entry function
parameters Pointer to memory that will be used as a parameter for the task being created. This memory should not typically come from stack, but rather from dynamically (i.e., malloc’d) or statically allocated memory.
name A descriptive name for the task. This is mainly used to facilitate debugging. The name may be up to 32 characters long.

Operator Overloads

void operator = ( const pros::task_t in )
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  pros::task_t my_task = task_create(my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                               TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "My Task");
  Task my_cpp_task = my_task;
}

Creates a Task object from a task already created with the C API.

Parameters  
task The task for which to create an object

Methods

delay

Delay a task for a given number of milliseconds.

This is not the best method to have a task execute code at predefined intervals, as the delay time is measured from when the delay is requested. To delay cyclically, use delay_until.

static void pros::Task::delay ( const std::uint32_t milliseconds )
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void opcontrol() {
  while (true) {
    // Do opcontrol things
    pros::Task::delay(2);
  }
}
Parameters  
milliseconds The number of milliseconds to wait (1000 milliseconds per second)

delay_until

Delay a task until a specified time. This function can be used by periodic tasks to ensure a constant execution frequency.

The task will be woken up at the time *prev_time + delta, and *prev_time will be updated to reflect the time at which the task will unblock. *prev_time should be initialized to the result from millis().

Analogous to task_delay_until.

void pros::Task::delay_until ( std::uint32_t* const prev_time,
                               const std::uint32_t delta )
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void opcontrol() {
  std::uint32_t now = pros::millis();
  while (true) {
    // Do opcontrol things
    pros::Task::delay_until(&now, 2);
  }
}
Parameters  
prev_time A pointer to the location storing the setpoint time. This should typically be initialized to the return value of millis().
delta The number of milliseconds to wait (1000 milliseconds per second)

get_count

Returns the number of tasks the kernel is currently managing, including all ready, blocked, or suspended tasks. A task that has been deleted, but not yet reaped by the idle task will also be included in the count. Tasks recently created may take one context switch to be counted.

Analogous to Task_get_count.

std::uint32_t pros::Task::get_count ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "My Task");
  std::cout << "Number of Running Tasks:" << pros::Task::get_count();
}

Returns: The number of tasks that are currently being managed by the kernel


get_name

Obtains the name of the specified task.

Analogous to task_get_name.

char const* pros::Task::get_name ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "My Task");
  std::cout << "Task Name:" << my_task.get_name();
}

Returns: A pointer to the name of the task


get_priority

Obtains the priority of the specified task.

Analogous to task_get_priority.

std::uint32_t pros::Task::get_priority ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "My Task");
  std::cout << "Task Priority:" << my_task.get_priority();

Returns: The priority of the task.


get_state

Returns the state of the specified task.

Analogous to task_get_state.

task_state_e_t pros::Task::get_state ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* param) {
  std::cout << "Hello" << (char*)param;
  // ...
}
void initialize() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, (void*)"PROS", TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "My Task");
  std::cout << "Task's State:" << my_task.get_state();
}

Returns: The state of the task. (see task_state_e_t).


notify

Sends a simple notification to task and increments the notification value, using it as a notification counter.

See Task Notifications for details.

Analogous to task_notify.

Warning

verify this example code

std::uint32_t pros::Task::notify ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* ign) {
  while(my_task.notify_take(true, TIMEOUT_MAX)) {
    std::cout << "I was unblocked!";
  }
}
void opcontrol() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, NULL, TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "Notify me! Task");
  pros::Controller master (E_CONTROLLER_MASTER);
  while(true) {
    if(master.get_digital(DIGITAL_L1)) {
      my_task.notify(my_task);
    }
  }
}

Returns: Always true.


notify_clear

Clears the notification for a task.

See Task Notifications for details.

Analogous to task_notify_clear.

bool pros::Task::notify_clear ( )
TO BE ADDED

Returns: False if there was not a notification waiting, true if there was


notify_ext

Sends a notification to a task, optionally performing some action. Will also retrieve the value of the notification in the target task before modifying the notification value.

See Task Notifications for details.

Analogous to task_notify_ext.

std::uint32_t pros::Task::notify_ext ( std::uint32_t value,
                                  notify_action_e_t action,
                                  std::uint32_t* prev_value )
TO BE ADDED
Parameters  
value The value used in performing the action
action An action to optionally perform on the task’s notification value
prev_value A pointer to store the previous value of the target task’s notification value, may be NULL

Returns: Dependent on the notification action. For NOTIFY_ACTION_NO_OWRITE: return 0 if the value could be written without needing to overwrite, 1 otherwise. For all other NOTIFY_ACTION values: always return 0


notify_take

Wait for a notification to be nonzero.

See Task Notifications for details.

Analogous to task_notify_take.

std::uint32_t pros::Task::notify_take ( bool clear_on_exit,
                                   std::uint32_t timeout )
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void my_task_fn(void* ign) {
  while(my_task.notify_take(true, TIMEOUT_MAX)) {
    std::cout << "I was unblocked!";
  }
}
void opcontrol() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, NULL, TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "Notify me! Task");
  pros::Controller master (E_CONTROLLER_MASTER);
  while(true) {
    if(master.get_digital(DIGITAL_L1)) {
      my_task.notify(my_task);
    }
  }
}
Parameters  
clear_on_exit If true (1), then the notification value is cleared. If false (0), then the notification value is decremented.
timeout Specifies the amount of time to be spent waiting for a notification to occur.

Returns: The value of the task’s notification value before it is decremented or cleared.


remove

Remove a task from the RTOS real time kernel’s management. The task being deleted will be removed from all ready, blocked, suspended and event lists.

Memory dynamically allocated by the task is not automatically freed, and should be freed before the task is deleted.

Analogous to task_delete.

void pros::Task::remove ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* ign) {
    // Do things
  }
  void opcontrol() {
    Task my_task (my_task_fn, NULL, TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                  TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "Example Task");
    // Do things
    my_task.remove(); // Delete the task
    std::cout << "Task State: " << my_task.get_state() << std::endl;
    // Prints the value of E_TASK_STATE_DELETED
  }

resume

Resumes the specified task, making it eligible to be scheduled.

Analogous to task_resume.

void pros::Task::resume ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* ign) {
  // Do things
}
void opcontrol() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, NULL, TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "Example Task");
  // Do things
  my_task.suspend(); // The task will no longer execute
  // Do other things
  my_task.resume(); // The task will resume execution
}

set_priority

Sets the priority of the specified task.

If the specified task’s state is available to be scheduled (e.g. not blocked) and new priority is higher than the currently running task, a context switch may occur.

Analogous to task_set_priority.

void pros::Task::set_priority ( std::uint32_t prio )
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void my_task_fn(void* ign) {
  // Do things
}
void opcontrol() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, NULL, TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "Example Task");
  my_task.set_priority(TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT + 1);
}
Parameters  
prio The new priority of the task

suspend

Suspends the current task, making it ineligible to be scheduled.

Analogous to task_suspend.

void pros::Task::suspend ( )
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void my_task_fn(void* ign) {
  // Do things
}
void opcontrol() {
  Task my_task (my_task_fn, NULL, TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT,
                TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT, "Example Task");
  // Do things
  my_task.suspend(); // The task will no longer execute
  // Do other things
  my_task.resume(); // The task will resume execution
}

pros::Mutex

Constructor(s)

Creates a mutex.

See Multitasking for details.

Analogous to mutex_create.

pros::Mutex::Mutex ( )
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Mutex mutex;

// Acquire the mutex; other tasks using this command will wait until the mutex is released
// timeout can specify the maximum time to wait, or MAX_DELAY to wait forever
// If the timeout expires, "false" will be returned, otherwise "true"
mutex.take(MAX_DELAY);
// do some work
// Release the mutex for other tasks
mutex.give();

Methods

give

Unlocks a mutex.

See Multitasking for details.

Analogous to mutex_give.

bool pros::Mutex::give ( )
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Mutex mutex;

// Acquire the mutex; other tasks using this command will wait until the mutex is released
// timeout can specify the maximum time to wait, or MAX_DELAY to wait forever
// If the timeout expires, "false" will be returned, otherwise "true"
mutex.take(MAX_DELAY);
// do some work
// Release the mutex for other tasks
mutex.give();

Returns: True if the mutex was successfully returned, false otherwise. If false is returned, then errno is set with a hint about why the mutex couldn’t be returned.


take

Takes and locks a mutex, waiting for up to a certain number of milliseconds before timing out.

See Multitasking for details.

Analogous to mutex_take.

bool pros::Mutex::take ( std::uint32_t timeout )
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Mutex mutex;

// Acquire the mutex; other tasks using this command will wait until the mutex is released
// timeout can specify the maximum time to wait, or MAX_DELAY to wait forever
// If the timeout expires, "false" will be returned, otherwise "true"
mutex.take(MAX_DELAY);
// do some work
// Release the mutex for other tasks
mutex.give();
Parameters  
timeout Time to wait before the mutex becomes available. A timeout of 0 can be used to poll the mutex. TIMEOUT_MAX can be used to block indefinitely.

Returns: True if the mutex was successfully taken, false otherwise. If false is returned, then errno is set with a hint about why the the mutex couldn’t be taken.


Macros

CURRENT_TASK

Refers to the current task. To be used for checking attributes of the task in which this macro is called.

Value: ((task_t)NULL)

TASK_NAME_MAX_LEN

The maximum number of characters allowed in a task’s name.

Value: 32

TASK_PRIORITY_DEFAULT

The default task priority, which should be used for most tasks.

Default tasks such as autonomous() inherit this priority.

Value: 8

TASK_PRIORITY_MAX

The highest priority that can be assigned to a task. Beware of deadlock.

Value: 16

TASK_PRIORITY_MIN

The lowest priority that can be assigned to a task.

This may cause severe performance problems and is generally not recommended.

Value: 1

TASK_STACK_DEPTH_DEFAULT

The recommended stack size for a new task. This stack size is used for default tasks such as autonomous(). This equates to 32,768 bytes, or 128 times the default stack size for a task in PROS 2.

Value: 0x2000

TASK_STACK_DEPTH_MIN

The minimal stack size for a task. This equates to 2048 bytes, or 8 times the default stack size for a task in PROS 2.

Value: 0x200

TIMEOUT_MAX

The maximum timeout value that can be given to, for instance, a mutex grab.

Value: ((uint32_t)0xffffffffUL)

Enumerated Values

pros::task_state_e_t

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typedef enum {
  E_TASK_STATE_RUNNING = 0,
  E_TASK_STATE_READY,
  E_TASK_STATE_BLOCKED,
  E_TASK_STATE_SUSPENDED,
  E_TASK_STATE_DELETED,
  E_TASK_STATE_INVALID
} task_state_e_t;
Value  
pros::E_TASK_STATE_RUNNING The task is actively executing.
pros::E_TASK_STATE_READY The task exists and is available to run, but is not currently running.
pros::E_TASK_STATE_BLOCKED The task is delayed or blocked by a mutex, semaphore, or I/O operation.
pros::E_TASK_STATE_SUSPENDED The task is suspended using task_suspend.
pros::E_TASK_STATE_DELETED The task has been deleted using task_delete.
pros::E_TASK_STATE_INVALID The task handle does not point to a current or past task.

pros::task_notify_t

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typedef enum {
  E_NOTIFY_ACTION_NONE,
  E_NOTIFY_ACTION_BITS,
  E_NOTIFY_ACTION_INCR,
  E_NOTIFY_ACTION_OWRITE,
  E_NOTIFY_ACTION_NO_OWRITE
} notify_action_e_t;
Value  
pros::E_NOTIFY_ACTION_NONE The task’s notification value will not be touched.
pros::E_NOTIFY_ACTION_BITS The task’s notification value will be bitwise ORed with the new value.
pros::E_NOTIFY_ACTION_INCR The task’s notification value will be incremented by one, effectively using it as a notification counter.
pros::E_NOTIFY_ACTION_OWRITE The task’s notification value will be unconditionally set to the new value.
pros::E_NOTIFY_ACTION_NO_OWRITE The task’s notification value will be set to the new value if the task does not already have a pending notification.

Typedefs

pros::task_t

Points to a task handle. Used for referencing a task.

typedef void* task_t;

pros::task_fn_t

Points to the function associated with a task.

typedef void (*task_fn_t)(void*);

pros::mutex_t

A mutex.

typedef void* mutex_t;